By James T. Patterson
This new version of Patterson's favourite publication includes the tale of battles over poverty and social welfare via what the writer calls the "amazing 1990s," these years of remarkable functionality of the financial system. He explores a number of matters coming up from the commercial phenomenon--increasing inequality and calls for to be used of a stronger poverty definition. He focuses the tale at the influence of the hugely arguable welfare reform of 1996, glided by a Republican Congress and signed by means of a Democratic President Clinton, regardless of the laments of anguished liberals.
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Extra resources for America's Struggle Against Poverty in the Twentieth Century
No one expressed these ideas better than Josephine Shaw Lowell, perhaps the most respected COS leader. ” She added, “The real condemnation of relief-giving is that it is material, that it seeks material means, and therefore must fail . . ”5 While this rhetoric seemed quaint by the turn of the twentieth century, the work ethic it sustained was far from passé. So scrupulous an observer as Amos Warner, an expert on charity and welfare, believed that public relief invited political corruption and waste; he preferred private charity.
A. 1 Economic progress also expanded expectations of improving the lot of the poor. In a post-Malthusian world of abundance poverty could not only be alleviated; it could be prevented. This faith in prevention helped account for the “discovery” of poverty by many writers in the progressive era. It fostered also a plethora of antipoverty ideas from contemporary reformers. Prevention of poverty represented the dominant social philosophy of an optimistic, forward-looking age. 2 Of course, many Americans inherited timeless notions about poverty and welfare, or relief, as it was called in that more voluntarist age.
They developed a network of self-help activities, including unions, churches, mutual aid societies, building and loan associations, and urban political connections. They depended especially on kin and ethnic ties. These people never expected to get much help from social workers, let alone the government. They worked long hours at manual labor; they sent their children into the factories, mines, and mills; their wives took in boarders. They yearned to rise, and many of them did. One careful study of social mobility concluded that between 30 and 40 percent of the sons of blue-collar workers in American cities attained middle-class occupational status between 1880 and 1930.
America's Struggle Against Poverty in the Twentieth Century by James T. Patterson