By Bruce L. Gardner
American agriculture within the 20th century has given the area one in all its nice good fortune tales, a paradigm of productiveness and many. but the tale has its darkish facet, from the plight of the Okies within the Nineteen Thirties to the farm drawback of the Nineteen Eighties to cutting-edge matters approximately low crop costs and the influence of biotechnology. U.S. farming over the last century, Bruce Gardner searches out causes for either the outstanding growth and the chronic social difficulties that experience marked the historical past of yankee agriculture. Gardner files either the industrial problems that experience faced farmers and the technological and financial adjustments that experience lifted them from relative poverty to fiscal parity with the nonfarm inhabitants. He offers a close research of the motives of those traits, with emphasis at the function of presidency motion. He stories how commodity aid courses, pushed by way of interest-group politics, have spent enormous quantities of billions of greenbacks to little goal. still, Gardner concludes that through reconciling competing monetary pursuits whereas fostering productiveness development and monetary integration of the farm and nonfarm economies, the general twentieth-century function of presidency in American agriculture in all fairness considered as a triumph of democracy. (20030101)
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Additional resources for American Agriculture in the Twentieth Century: How It Flourished and What It Cost
S. armed forces as a defoliant in Vietnam) became popular in the 1950s. 7). In 1952, 11 percent of corn and 5 percent of cotton acres were treated with herbicides; by 1982 these percentages had risen to 95 and 93 percent, respectively (Osteen 1993, p. 314). Analysis of immediate postwar data indicated that an additional dollar spent on fertilizer or pesticides generated increased output worth $3 to $5 on average (Griliches 1964a; Headley 1968). 7 Indicators of pesticide use. Data from USDA (1997d).
But there are differences between hired and self-employed workers that may be directly related to the premia that the self-employed workers would receive if they were in the hired labor force. More schooling or additional years of experience may be more or less valuable to a farm operator than to a hired farmworker. The difference between the rate of change over time in USDA’s qualityadjusted farm labor input measure and a measure that just counts estimated labor hours without quality adjustment is not large, but it does make a difference.
S. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Statistics, various years. widely dispersed offspring than would otherwise have been the case. Recent developments, notably embryo transplants, cloning, and genetic engineering, did not generate measurable productivity gains in the twentieth century, but point toward a continuation of similar productivity gains in the twenty-ﬁrst. The results of these technological advances appear in increased labor productivity to some extent, but the gains are most apparent in yield data— output per acre, milk per cow, meat per pound of feed.
American Agriculture in the Twentieth Century: How It Flourished and What It Cost by Bruce L. Gardner