Advanced anecdotes in American English - download pdf or read online

By L. A Hill

ISBN-10: 0195027701

ISBN-13: 9780195027709

This identify deals a chain of humorously illustrated readers.

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In principle, examples of the mirror image phenomenon – postposed proclitics as in (1b) – are just as interesting, but I know of no convincing cases. I do not believe that there is any deep structural restriction at work here, but simply a strong cross-linguistic preference for clitics to be enclitic rather than proclitic, just as affixes show a strong preference for being suffixes rather than prefixes (cf. Halpern 1998: 119). As proclitics are only rarely attested, and ditropic cliticisation is also a rare phenomenon, the combination of these two rare phenomenena will be extremely rare.

For all cases, Schulze (2000: 54–55) claims that the position of the clitic is determined by focus. The clitic is attached to the constituent that is in focus, and the most frequent position of the focussed constituent is directly preverbal. (9) Northern Talysh (Schulze 2000: 55, ex. 80; 53, ex. ) a. de ˇciˇc-6 epišt-a? ’ b. poss leg-pl-1sg tie up-perf ‘I tied up his legs’ c. albahal-6m tifang ba po pek6rn-i this moment-1sg rifle to down take up-aor ‘In this moment I took up the rifle from below’ Schulze (2000: 52) states that this situation is “also present in a great variety of other Iranian languages”.

In such cases, the clitic appears to be attached morphologically on the wrong side. Functionally, the clitic belongs together with Y, yet it is attached morphologically to X. Embick and Noyer (1999: 291) have introduced the term ditropic clitic for this phenomenon. (1) a. [X]=clitic [Y] b. [Y] clitic=[X]  Michael Cysouw As an example of a ditropic clitic, consider the Yagua object clitic in (2), to be discussed in more detail below. The object clitic (in boldface) always directly precedes a coreferential full object NP (here ‘Anita’) but it is enclitically attached to whatever constituent comes before the object, in this example the prepositional phrase ‘inside the house’.

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Advanced anecdotes in American English by L. A Hill

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