By John B. Saunders et al.
Substance use and similar addictive problems expense among the pinnacle 4 chance components contributing to the worldwide burden of disorder and shape an more and more very important a part of clinical and healthcare perform. Substance use issues may cause, mimic, underlie or complicate lots of universal clinical and psychiatric issues. creating a right analysis of the substance use illness can facilitate medical prognosis, keep away from pointless checks, shorten clinic remain and make the clinician and patient's lifestyles more straightforward and safer.
Part of the winning Oxford expert Handbooks sequence, the second one version of Addiction Medicine is a concise and useful consultant for college students, practitioners of drugs and different healthiness professions who come into touch with individuals with substance use issues. delivering updated functional review, analysis, remedy and administration techniques, this version expands at the first variation via up-to-date content material and international assurance of dependancy medicine.
Edited by means of an international staff of skilled psychiatrists really good in addictions, Addiction medication, moment edition comprises every little thing you want to understand to aid within the review, analysis and scientific administration of sufferers with substance use and similar addictive disorders.
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Additional info for Addiction medicine
Epidemiology of substance use • Cocaine use has typically been more concentrated in regions where the coca plant is grown or those regions nearby. • The US has had by far the greatest problem with cocaine (and ‘crack’ cocaine) worldwide, particularly in the late 1980s and early 1990s. • More recently, there have been increases in the availability and use of cocaine in Western Europe. • The use of cocaine is much less common in Asia, Oceania, and African countries. Psychostimulants are most commonly taken orally, intranasally, the vapours inhaled (smoking), or injected.
A conditioned association is established between the cue and the response, which results in urges and craving occurring even when the substance itself is unavailable. • Operant conditioning, where the response such as the effect of substance use acts as a reinforcer (or alternatively a deterrent), and thus influences subsequent use of that substance. • Social learning influences, which emphasize the importance of the social environment as well as interior milieu in the response to a psychoactive substance and the subsequent appetite for that substance.
Psychostimulants are most commonly taken orally, intranasally, the vapours inhaled (smoking), or injected. Dependence has been associated with mental health, physical, occupational, relationship, financial, and legal problems. • It is likely that most of the harm related to psychostimulant use occurs among those who have developed dependence on the drug. • Users with a history of other drug and mental health problems may be at greater risk of developing dependence. • There has been concern about associations between psychostimulant use and HIV risk via risky sexual behaviour.
Addiction medicine by John B. Saunders et al.