By Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson
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Extra info for Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2)
I then compared the behavior and demography of birds in the single-stock popula- 29 30 A. T. BERGERUD Fig. 1. Capture sites (MQ, CC, CB) of blue grouse on Vancouver Island and release sites on the Gulf Islands. Stuart Island-MQ stock; Sidney Island-CB stock; Portland Island-CC stock; Moresby Island-CC, CB, and MQ stock. DEMOGRAPHY AND BEHAVIOR OF BLUE GROUSE 31 tions with those of birds in the mixed-stock population to evaluate competition among stocks as an influence on parameters of demography and behavior.
4 Predator avoidance behavior Flushing is the most obvious predator-avoidance behavior. The flushing distance, or distance between the observer and grouse when it flew, was the easiest feature of this behavior to quantify (Fig. 9). Again there was no significant difference between the two low areas. Flushing distances were longer at the high area in each sex and age category. A related phenomenon was the time it took for a grouse to flush after first being disturbed, and the distance it walked or ran before flushing.
2 Behavior Blue grouse are secretive and cannot easily be observed in undisturbed situations. However, the song (hooting) of undisturbed males was recorded whenever heard. Hooting was classified by the number of syllables it contained and by how many songs were sung per minute over a 5-minute period. Most data, however, were obtained by presenting grouse with artifical situations such as encounters with field workers, and recording the birds' reactions. The response of a bird, whose location had been indicated by a pointing dog, to a slow stalk by the observer was measured by recording when and at what distance it flushed, displayed, and sang, and showed distraction or brood defense and other behaviors, and its reactions to other birds present.
Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2) by Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson